Javier Castillo-Seoane, Lidia Contreras-Bernal, Antonio J. Riquelme, Samuel Fauvel, Yann Kervella, Jorge Gil-Rostra, Gabriel Lozano, Angel Barranco, Renaud Demadrille, Juan R. Sanchez-Valencia, Ana Borras

ArXiv:2312.16663 [physics.app-ph]

DOI: 10.48550/arXiv.2312.16663

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) have recently regained attention for indoor light harvesting and powering wireless devices. Advantages such as cost-effectiveness, flexibility, wide angular response, and lightweight design have driven the fostering of the implementation of advanced photonic architectures, dedicated photosensitizers and compatibility with wearable carriers. However, to fully exploit their potential, crucial aspects require further attention, in particular the improvement of spectral compatibility and low-light harvesting mechanisms, as well as the development of efficient photoanodes through high-yield scalable methods. In this article, we propose the use of nanocomposite photoanodes integrating mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) nanoparticles, ITO nanotubes (NTs) and TiO2 anatase shells (ITO@TiO2 NTs) prepared by step-by-step method relying on mild temperature conditions and avoiding toxic precursors. These photoanodes outperform previous attempts to implement low-dimensional ITO and ITO@TiO2 nanowires and nanotubes for outdoor light conversion, demonstrating an outstanding PCE under low artificial light intensity of 24 % for at 0.014 mWcm-2, a 166 % increase compared to the conventional architectures. Advanced microstructural, optical, and electrochemical characterizations have revealed that the strong scattering effect of the light in the visible range coupled with enhanced charge collection at low-intensity illumination are the essential mechanisms responsible for such enhanced energy conversion. Remarkably, our devices retain up to 90% of the normal incidence efficiency even under glancing illumination, while conventional reference devices show a drop down to 50%